This article is about the use of verbal modes and tenses.

Spanish verbs are conjugated in four modes: indicative (indicativo), subjunctive (subjuntivo), conditional (condicional) and imperative (imperativo). All these modes have one or more tenses and compound tenses. Read on if you want to know more about in which cases to use these modes and tenses.

Indicative mode

The indicative mode (indicativo) is used to express that world of reality: what is (present tense), what was (past tense), what will be (future tense).

Present tense

The present tense (presente) is used to express actions that take place at the moment of speaking. For example:

Juanita canta una canción.
Juanita sings a song.

It is used to express actions that take place frequently. For example:

Lydia nunca desayuna por la mañana.
Lydia never has breakfast in the morning.

It can be used to express future actions. For example:

El verano que viene mis amigos se van de vacaciones a los Estados Unidos.
Next summer my friends are going for holiday to the United States.

It is used to express orders. For example:

Ahora mismo vas a casa de José y traes el libro.
Right now you're going at José's house and you bring the book.

It can be used to refer something to actions in the past. For example:

Ayer estaba con Carlitos en el parque y de pronto viene Carla y me dice: ¿A quién esperas?
Yesterday I was with Carlitos in the park and suddenly Carla comes and asks me: Who are you waiting for?

Past imperfect tense (pretérito imperfecto)

The préterito imperfecto is used to describe an action that started in the past without indicating if it is finished or not, whereas the Perfect Tense tells us that the action already has finished. For Example:

<<example>>

It is used to talk about habitual actions in the past. For example:

Pepe leía muchos tebeos cuando era pequeño.
Pepe used to read a lot of comics when he was young.

It is used for details like: time, location, hour, year, feelings, mental and physical aspects.

Hacía frío durante la noche.
It was cold during the night.

Past perfect tense (pretérito indefinido)

The préterito indefinido is also called pretérito perfecto simple.

It is used to express actions in the past. These actions are always finished.

¿Qué pasó?
What happened?

There are words associated with the pretérito indefinido: ayer (yesterday), anteayer (the day before yesterday), anoche (last night), una vez (one time), dos veces (two times), la semana pasada (last week), etc.

Mi hermano llegó ayer.
My brother arrived yesterday.

You can find both pretérito indefinido and imperfecto in the same sentence.

Cuando navegábamos el domingo pasado nos cayó un chaparrón enorme.
When we were sailing last Sunday an enormous rain shower fell over us.

Future tense

The future tense (futuro) is used for talking about actions following on the time of speaking. There is always a bit of uncertainty. It's never possible to be secure of the realisation of the action described. For example:

La próxima semana te escribiré.
I will write you next week.

Furthermore the futuro is used to express...

...conjectures regarding the present:

¿Qué hora será?
What time would it be?

...probability regarding the present:

Serán las cuatro.
It would be four o'clock.

...an indirect quotation:

Elena dice que vendrá la semana que viene.
Elena says she will come next week.

Subjunctive mode

The subjuntivo is used to convey ideas in the realm of all areas other than those of objective facts: concepts that are hypothetical, contrary to fact, those which embody the expression of feelings of the speaker toward a state or action.

Present tense

The present tense in subjunctive mode is used in expressions beginning with a form of ser + adjective (to be + adjective) where not the fact but the opinion of the speaker toward a hypothetical state or action is stated. For example:

Es posible que mañana llueva.
It is possible that it rains tomorrow.
Es bueno que trabajes mucho.
It is good that you work a lot.

In the following examples the indicative mode is used, because they insist on a fact or on the certainty of a fact.

Es seguro que mañana llueve.
It is sure that it rains tomorrow.
Es verdad que trabajas mucho.
It is true that you work a lot.

But:

No es seguro que mañana llueva.
It isn't sure that it rains tomorrow.
No es verdad que trabajes mucho.
It is not true that you work a lot.

The subjunctive is used after expressions of:

desire Quiero que... , Ojala que...
commanding El manda que...
requesting Te pido que...
advice Te aconsejo que...
preventing El guardia impide que...
suggestion Ella sugiere que...
invitation Te invito que...
insisting Insisto que...
demanding Exijo que...

Imperfect tense (pretérito imperfecto)

When the verb on which the subjuctive depends goes in pretérito indefinido, imperfecto, pluscuamperfecto or condicional, we will have to use the pretérito imperfecto de subjuntivo. Por ejemplo:

Me había alegrado de que hiciera sol.
It would have appreciated me that the sun would shine.

Future tense

The futuro de subjuntivo is used very rarely. So we don't treat the use of it here.

Conditional mode

The conditional mode (condicional) is used to express incertidumbre, particularmente (pero no exclusivamente) en oraciones condicionales.

Si yo comiera más, estaría muy gordo. (no es probable que coma más)
If I ate more, I would have been very fat.

The conditional mode is sometimes considered to be a tense instead of a mode.

Imperative mode

The imperative mode (imperativo) expresses an order, request or prohibition. There are two types of imperative: affirmative (afirmativo) and negative (negativo).

Affirmative

For example:

¡Canta!
Sing!
Siéntese usted.
Sit down.

Negative

The imperativo negativo is always derived from the subjuntivo presente. Example:

¡No cantes!
Don't sing!
No se siente usted.
Don't sit down.

Compound tenses

This text only treats the simple tenses. A compound tense in Spanish uses an auxiliary verb and a verb to describe the action. Read the article about compound tenses to learn more.